What Agreements Were Reached At The Yalta Conference

Yalta was the second of three war conferences among the Big Three, preceded by the Tehran Conference in 1943 and followed in July 1945 by the Potsdam Conference, which was attended by Stalin, Churchill (replaced mid-term by the new British Prime Minister Clement Attlee) and Harry S. Truman, Roosevelt`s successor. The Yalta conference was a turning point in the Cold War. The three heads of state and government tried to establish an agenda for the leadership of post-war Europe and to maintain peace between post-war countries. On the Eastern Front, the front line remained in the Soviet Union at the end of December 1943, but in August 1944, Soviet troops were in Poland and Romania as part of their journey west. At the time of the conference, Field Marshal Georgui Zhukov`s troops were 40 miles from Berlin. Stalin lowered himself so much at the conference that he could dictate conditions. According to James F. Byrne, a member of the U.S. delegation and future secretary of state, « it was not a question of what we would leave to the Russians, but what we could do to the Russians. » In addition, Roosevelt hoped that Stalin would commit to participating in the United Nations.

The first reaction to the Yalta Accords was solemn. Roosevelt and many other Americans saw this as proof that the spirit of US-Soviet war cooperation would be transmitted until the post-war period. But this feeling was only short-lived. With the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 12, 1945, Harry S. Truman became the 33rd President of the United States. At the end of April, the new government clashed with the Soviets over its influence in Eastern Europe and the United Nations. Concerned about the lack of cooperation felt by the Soviets, many Americans began to criticize the way Roosevelt negotiated the Yalta negotiations. To this day, many of Roosevelt`s critics accuse him of « ceding » Eastern Europe and Northeast Asia to the Soviet Union at Yalta, although the Soviets made many substantial concessions.

The Potsdam conference was held from July to August 1945, which was also attended by Clement Attlee (who had replaced Churchill as Prime Minister) and President Harry S Truman (who represented the United States after Roosevelt`s death). [39] In Potsdam, the Soviets disputed allegations that they had interfered in the affairs of Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. [34] The conference led to (1) Potsdam`s declaration on Japan`s surrender[40] and (2) the Potsdam Agreement on the Soviet annexation of the former Polish territory to the curzon Line and provisions that will be addressed in a possible final treaty to end the Second World War on the annexation of parts of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line to Poland. and North-East Prussia to the Soviet Union. The initiative to convene a second « Big Three » conference came from Roosevelt, who had hoped for a meeting before the US presidential elections in November 1944, but later pushed for a meeting in early 1945 at a neutral location in the Mediterranean. Malta, Cyprus and Athens have been proposed. Stalin, who insisted that his doctors oppose long journeys, rejected these options. [7] Instead, he suggested meeting instead in the Black Sea city of Yalta in Crimea.

Fear of Stalin`s plane also contributed to this decision. [8] Yet Stalin formally referred to Roosevelt as the « host » of the conference; All plenary sessions should take place in the American accommodation of the Livadia Palace, and Roosevelt, without exception, sits in the center of the group photos (all taken by Roosevelt`s official photographer).